押庄龙虎游戏

押庄龙虎游戏 ICON 走进卫科 ICON 服务项目 ICON 新闻资讯 ICON 媒体采访 ICON 虫害知识 ICON 政策法规 ICON 网上商城 ICON 联系方式 ICON 在线留言
虫害知识
  ICON 常见虫害
  ICON 防治知识
  ICON 白蚁专区
服务热线
 
更多
ICON 登革热,寨卡“元凶”---白纹伊蚊
ICON 解读寨卡病毒
ICON 广州登革热病例"爆发"式增长,疫情
ICON ◆蜱虫现身北京,市民无需恐慌
ICON 押庄龙虎游戏木地板如何防腐防潮防虫
 
更多
ICON 白蚁繁殖高峰期到了 灭治需专业人员
ICON ◆纪实频道《科技密码》来免费采访
ICON ◆《今日印象》来我公司免费采访◆
ICON 新房装修莫忘白蚁预防-图
ICON 警惕“无齿老虎”白蚁!-图
 
押庄龙虎游戏更多
ICON 上海市协会2010年工作要点
ICON 关于HACCP认证(图)
ICON 押庄龙虎游戏AIB食品安全统一标准-虫害控制部
ICON 灾后卫生害虫防治技术要点
ICON 上海市鼠害与虫害预防与控制技术规范
 
 
押庄龙虎游戏 - 常见虫害 - 详细
 跳蚤
 
    蚤属于昆虫纲、蚤目(Siphonaptera),是哺乳动物和鸟类的体外寄生虫。其特征是:①体小而侧扁,触角长在触角窝内,全身鬃、刺和栉均向后方生长,能在宿主毛、羽间迅速穿行。②无翅,足长,其基节特别发达,善于跳跃。全世界共记录蚤2000多种,我国已知有454种,其中仅少数种类与传播人兽共患病有关。
  形态
  雌蚤长3mm左右,雄蚤稍短,体棕黄至深褐色。有眼或无眼。全身多刚劲的刺称为鬃(bristle)。
  雌蚤
  1.头部 略呈三角形,其中央的触角窝(antennal fossa)可将头分为前头和后头两部分,前头上方称额,下方称颊。触角分3节,末节膨大,常又可分为9个假节。雄蚤触角较长,平均向下藏在触角窝内,交尾时将触角上举以挟持雌虫。有的蚤在触角窝前长有单眼。前头腹面有刺吸式口器,由针状的下颚内叶1对和内唇组成食物管,外包以分节的下唇须形成喙。蚤头部有许多鬃,根据生长部位称眼鬃、颊鬃、后头鬃等,有的种类颊部边缘具有若干粗壮的棕褐色扁刺,排成梳状,称为颊栉(genal comb)。
  蚤头部及前胸
  2.胸部 分成3节,每节均由背板、腹板各一块及侧板2块构成。有的种类前胸背板后缘具有粗壮的梳状扁刺,称前胸栉(pronotal comb)。无翅,足3对长而发达,尤以基节特别宽大,跗节分为5节,末节具有爪1对。
  3.腹部 由10节组成,前7节称正常腹节,每节背板两侧各有气门1对。雄蚤8、9 腹节、雌蚤7~9腹节变形为外生殖器,第10腹节为肛节。第 7节背板后缘两侧各有一组粗壮的鬃,称臀前鬃(antepygidial bristle), 保护着其后第8节上的臀板(pygidium),臀板为感觉器官,略呈圆形,板上有若干杯状凹陷并且各具一根细长鬃和许多小刺。
  雌蚤腹部钝圆,在7~8腹板的位置上可见几丁质较厚的受精囊。受精囊可分头、尾两部分,形状各种蚤不同。雄蚤腹部末端较尖,其第9背板和腹板分别形成上抱器和下抱器。雄蚤外生殖器复杂,形状也因种而异,故基与雌蚤受精囊一起被作为分类的依据。
  生活史与习性
  蚤生活史为全变态,包括卵、幼虫、蛹和成虫4个时期
  1.卵 椭圆形,长0.4~1.0mm,初产时白色、有光泽,以后逐渐变成暗黄色。卵在适宜的温、湿条件下,约经5天左右即可孵出幼虫。
  2.幼虫 形似蛆而小,有三龄期。体白色或淡黄色,连头共14节,头部有咀嚼式口器和1对触角,无眼、无足,每个体节上均有1~2对鬃。幼虫甚活泼,爬行敏捷,在适宜条件下约经2~3周发育,蜕皮2次即变为成熟幼虫,体长可达4~6mm。
  3.蛹 成熟幼虫叶丝作茧,在茧内作第三次蜕皮,然后化蛹。茧呈黄白色,外面常粘着一些灰尘或碎屑,有伪装作用。发育的蛹已具成虫雏形,头、胸、腹及足均已形成,并逐渐变为淡棕色。蛹期一般为1~2周,有时可长达1年,其长短取决于温度与湿度是否适宜。茧内的蛹羽化时需要外界的刺激。如空气的震动,动物走近的扰动和接触压力以及温度的升高等,都可诱使成虫破茧而出。这一特性可解释为什么人进入久无人住的房舍时会被大量蚤袭击。
  4.成虫 成虫羽化后可立即交配,然后开始吸血,并在一、二天后产卵。雌蚤一生可产卵数百个。蚤的寿命约一、二年。
  雌蚤通常在宿主皮毛上和窝巢中产卵,由于卵壳缺乏粘性,宿主身上的卵最终都散落到其窝巢及活动场所,这些地方也就是幼虫的孳生地,如鼠洞、畜禽舍、屋角、墙缝、床下以及土坑等,幼虫以尘土中宿主脱落的皮屑、成虫排出的粪便及未消化的血块等有机物为食;而阴暗、温湿的周围环境很适合幼虫和蛹发育。
  蚤两性都吸血,雌蚤的生殖活动更与吸血密切相关。通常一天需吸血数次,每次吸血约2~3分钟,然后离去。常吸血过量以致血食来不及消化即随粪便排出。但蚤抗饥饿能力也很强,某些蚤能耐饥达10个月以上。
  蚤的宿主范围很广,包括兽类和鸟类,但主要是小型哺乳动物,尤以啮齿目(鼠)为多。由于善跳跃,蚤可在宿主体表和窝巢内外自由活动,个别种类可固着甚至钻入宿主皮下寄生,如潜蚤(Tunga)。宿主选择性随种而异,传播疾病者大多是选择性不严的种类。
  蚤各期发育和繁殖对温度的依赖都很大,温度低时卵的孵化、幼虫蜕皮化蛹都大大延迟。各种蚤发育所需的有效温度不同,可反应在其地理分布上。致痒蚤(Pulex irritans)发育需较高温度,成为温暖地带常见蚤种。印鼠客蚤(Xenopsylla cheopis)需要更高温度,该蚤则只在我国南方各省多见。
  蚤成虫也对宿主体温有敏感的反应,当宿主因发病而体温升高或在死亡后体温下降时,蚤都会很快离开,去寻找新的宿主。这一习性在蚤传播疾病上很重要。
  与疾病的关系
  蚤对人的危害可分为骚扰吸血,寄生和传播疾病三个方面。
  1.骚扰吸血 人进入有蚤的场所或蚤随家畜或鼠类活动侵入居室,蚤均可到人身上骚扰并吸血。人的反应各不相同,严重者影响休息或因抓搔致感染。
  2.寄生 潜蚤雌虫寄生于动物皮下。在人体是因穿皮潜蚤(Tunga penetrans)寄生引起潜蚤病。该病见于中南美洲及热带非洲,我国尚无记录。
  3.传播疾病:蚤主要通过生物性方式传播疾病。最重要的是鼠疫,其次是鼠型斑疹伤寒(地方性斑疹伤寒);还能传播犬复孔绦虫、缩小膜壳绦虫和微小膜壳绦虫病。
  ⑴鼠疫:是鼠疫杆菌(Yersinia pestis)所致的烈性传染病。其自然宿主在我国是旱獭(Marmota)、黄鼠(Citellus)和沙鼠(Meriones),蚤是重要的传播媒介。当蚤吸食病鼠血后,鼠疫杆菌在蚤的前胃棘间增殖,形成菌栓,造成前胃堵塞。再次吸血时血液不能到达胃内,反而携带杆菌回流到宿主体内致使宿主感染。受染的蚤由于饥饿,及血频繁,因而更多地感染宿主动物。该习性在鼠疫的传播上具有重要意义。
  病原体通过蚤在野栖啮齿动物中传播,构成鼠疫自然疫源地,当人或家栖鼠类进入疫源地感染了鼠疫,可引起家鼠和人间鼠疫流行。
  ⑵鼠型斑疹伤寒:由蚤传播莫氏立克次体(Rickettsia mooseri)引起的急性传染病。原是热带和温带鼠类特别是家栖鼠类的传染病。在人群中仅为散发,偶尔也暴发流行。蚤吸血感染后,立克次体在其胃和马氏管上皮细胞内繁殖,细胞破裂后随粪排出。一般认为人是在被蚤叮咬后蚤粪污染伤口而致感染。立克次体在蚤类粪中可保持传染性长达9年。
  ⑶绦虫病:蚤是犬复孔绦虫、缩小膜壳绦虫和微小膜壳绦虫的中间宿主,人体感染主要是误食了含似囊尾蚴的蚤而致。
  我国重要的传病蚤
  1.致痒蚤(Pulex irritans) 亦称人蚤,在眼下方有眼鬃毛1根;受精囊的头部圆形,尾部细长弯曲呈世界性分布,我国各地均可见,也是人体最常见的蚤。嗜吸狗、猪和人血,对人骚扰性较大,尤以儿童为甚。可传播鼠疫,也是犬复孔绦虫、缩小膜壳绦虫的中间宿主。
  2.印鼠客蚤(Xenopsylla cheopis) 眼鬃毛1根,位于眼的前方;受精囊的头部与尾部宽度相近,且大部分呈暗色在我国沿海省市多见,主要宿主是家栖鼠类如小家鼠、褐家鼠和黄胸鼠等。亦吸人血。是人间鼠疫的重要媒介,也传播鼠型斑疹伤寒和缩小膜壳绦虫。
 
  防治方法
 

  防治原则
  1.清除孳生地 宜在平时结合灭鼠、防鼠进行,包括清除鼠窝、堵塞鼠洞、堵塞鼠洞,清扫禽畜棚圈、室内暗角等,并用各种杀虫剂杀灭残留的成蚤及其幼虫。
  2.灭蚤防蚤 药物敌百虫、敌敌畏等喷洒杀蚤有效。同时,注意对狗、猫等家畜的管理,如定期用药液给狗、猫洗澡。在鼠疫流行时应采取紧急灭蚤措施并加强个人防护。

 

Identification

There are over 2,000 described species of fleas in the world。 The most common domestic flea is the cat flea。 The dog flea appears similar to the cat flea, but is rare in the United States 。 The stick tight flea can become a problem if pets frequent areas associated with poultry。

Eggs are oval, and smooth (Fig. 1.-upper left). They are tiny (0.5mm), but visible to the naked eye. Their white color may prevent them from being seen on lightly- colored fabric.

Small wormlike larvae (1。5-5 mm in length) hatch from the eggs (Fig。 1。-upper right)。 They are also visible to the naked eye。 They are eyeless, legless and sparsely covered with hairs。 The larval body is translucent white with a dark-colored gut that can be seen through the skin。

These immature fleas will eventually spin silken cocoons (Fig。 1。-lower right) in which they will develop (pupate) into adult fleas。 Cocoons are sticky, attracting dirt and debris。 This camouflage may prevent them from being seen。

Adults are about 1-3 mm in length, reddish-brown to black, wingless, and laterally compressed (Fig。 1。-lower left)。 Their powerful hind legs are well adapted for jumping and running through hair and feathers。

Life Cycle & Biology

Cat flea adults, unlike many other fleas, remain on their host (Fig. 3). Females require a fresh blood meal in order to produce eggs. They can lay up to 1 per hour! The smooth eggs easily fall from the pet onto the carpet, bedding, or lawn. Eggs hatch within 2 days, and the developing larvae feed on dandruff, food particles, and skin flakes found on the floor around them. Adult flea fecal matter consists of relatively undigested blood. This dried blood also falls from the pet and serves as food for the newly hatched larvae.

Fleas prefer to develop in areas protected from rainfall, irrigation, and sunlight, where the relative humidity is at least 75% and the temperature is 70-90ºC. This stage lasts 5-15 days.

Larvae spin silken cocoons within carpet fibers, floor crevices, or protected outdoor areas in which they will develop (pupate) into adult fleas. The cocoons are sticky and easily camouflaged by local debris. Under optimal conditions, new adults are ready to emerge within 2 weeks. They develop faster at higher temperatures, but can remain in their cocoons up to 12 months. Vibrations and/or increase in carbon dioxide stimulate adults to emerge.

Adult fleas are the only growth stage that actually lives on the pet and feeds on fresh blood. They live 4-25 days.

Problems Associated With Fleas

The cat flea is capable of transmitting plague and murine typhus to humans, but reports are rare; its primary importance is its nuisance to humans and pets. Fleas are not picky about their meals; any warm-blooded animal will do. Bites usually cause minor itching, but may be more irritating to those with sensitive skin. Some people and pets suffer from flea allergy dermatitis, lasting up to 5 days and characterized by intense itching, reddening at the bite site, hair loss, and secondary infection. Cat fleas also serve as intermediate hosts of dog tapeworms. These intestinal parasites are transmitted to the pet while grooming via ingestion of an adult flea carrying a tapeworm cyst. Fleas are infected by ingestion of cysts during their larval stage. The parasite segments resemble small pieces of rice and may be discovered around the anal region of your pet.

Detection and Monitoring

Detection is as simple as seeing fleas on your pet, noticing your pet scratching, or flea bites around your ankles. Perhaps there are small black pieces of dirt covering your pet's bedding, or perhaps you've noticed tapeworm segments near or on your pet. The black dirt is the adult flea feces left behind to serve as food for larvae, and tapeworms are acquired by the animal's ingestion of fleas. Another tale tail sign is the appearance of pearly-white eggs on flat surfaces occupied by the pet. Eggs become particularly apparent when contrasted on dark-colored surfaces. Soft, liquid-filled flea eggs can be easily distinguished from sand grains by simply pressing them.

Monitoring is more difficult than simple detection. Fleas reproduce rapidly (one female can produce up to one egg per hour throughout her 4-week adult life), so if you spot one flea there are probably more. Shuffling around you home in white socks looking for fleas jumping onto the socks can help monitor hot spots for flea infestations. This information can help direct control efforts.

If you got flea infestation, please call professional pest control company for help.

 
Copyright © 2017 上海卫科有害生物防治有限公司 版权所有
电话:021-66250468 传真:021-66250468  电子邮箱:weike@weikepco.com
上海总部地址:中国上海市普陀区志丹路501弄33号107室 
南京分部地址:南京市秦淮区丰富路27号  南京公司网址:
联系电话:025-85567887  手机:18105189178  联系人:高先生  邮箱:18105189178@189.cn
 
我们的服务:专业灭老鼠 | 灭白蚁 | 灭蟑螂 | 灭蚂蚁 | 灭蚊虫 | 灭跳蚤 | 灭蛀虫 | 灭臭虫 | 空气净化 | 杀菌消毒
真钱扎金花app 21点技巧 开心十三张 十三水规则 十三水官方下载 二十一点真人版游戏 欢乐30秒游戏 红黑大战玩法 欢乐30秒下载 看三张抢庄牛牛技巧